Clarinet is almost the youngest child in a numerous family of woodwind instruments that were created in the beginning of the XVIII century by the Nuremberg master Denner. Clarinet (eng. Clarinet, it. Klarinette) is derived from the Latin clarus "bright", "clear". Only in the second half of the eighteenth century the opportunities of this tool were much appreciated thanks to the brilliant orchestral and ensemble works by Rameau, Johann Christian Bach, Handel, Mozart, Weber, and then, in the nineteenth century, Brahms and other authors.
Contemporary clarinet "bamovskij mechanics" was published in the early 40-ies of the XIX century as a result of the joint efforts of clarinetist G. E. goat and the master of wind instruments L. O. buffet (Theobald Boehm, the Creator of the modern flute type, the work on improvement of the clarinet was not involved). To date, eight known varieties of clarinet. The most common – soprano (in B).
In a colorful (software) orchestral scores often include the use of many varieties of the clarinet, including clarinet Piccolo (in Es), endowed with the most frivolous, a "silly" tone, and the Alto (in e flat). There are also bass clarinet and contrabass clarinet, reminiscent of the outlines of the modern saxophone, which, incidentally, is the younger relative of the clarinet.
The instrument's length is about 66 inches. The clarinet has a cylindrical tube and a socket extending slightly more than the oboe. Most often it is done out of passion, less expensive grades of ebonite or metal. The housing consists of five parts: mouthpiece, barrel, upper knee, lower knee (the latter two are also called the upper and lower parts of the main trunk) and of the socket.
Clarinet mouthpiece is usually made of ebonite or crystal. It has the shape of the beak; to open parts of it by means of a metal clamp with screws-lambs attached single reed a reed – cane. Thus, the flat side of the cane becomes part of the inner surface of the clarinet tube and comes into direct contact with the air column. The upper end of the tongue is sharpened very thin, with a carefully calibrated gap between it and the tip of the mouthpiece. While the clarinet is not busy in the game, "beak" for protection fits over a metal cap.
In the working position, the cane is on the lower lip covering the bottom teeth while the top teeth rest on the mouthpiece of the bevel. The tongue touches the tip of the cane with each articulation.
The clarinet range is 3.5 octaves. The lower the note the standard "lemovskogo" clarinet – mi. When overblowing is retrieved at the odd overtones. The lower register of the clarinet is called chalumeau (shawm name of the predecessor of the clarinet), upper – called Clarino. For the upper bound of the range of the clarinet is usually made with””, but some virtuosos take the higher notes (up to e”” and above).
The incomparable art of jazz clarinetist benny Goodman had a significant impact on literature for clarinet in the twentieth century. Undoubtedly such masters as Bartok, Stravinsky, Hindemith, Copland, largely due to his inspiring example. In 1930-40-ies of the jazz clarinet, passed some of their positions to the saxophone, but in the bands of the Dixieland style he uses in our days.
Bass clarinet is the earliest surviving examples of this striking species of instrument from the family of orchestral clarinets are known since 1793. The bass clarinet was originally intended to replace the bassoon in military bands. This is understandable: the bass clarinet a little less whimsical, besides its gloomy tints in the lower part of the range a few more ferocious than than that of the bassoon.
Despite its bulky dimensions (tool length 1.2 meters) and massive mechanics, the bass clarinet is not inferior to fluency in almost any of the smaller clarinets.
The instrument is made of ebony (extremely hard and dense, native to Central Africa and Madagascar).
Due to its considerable size, the bass clarinet is equipped with a spire for the way to the floor, as well as ring and strap for hanging.
The bell of the bass clarinet reminiscent of the bell of the saxophone. The relationship between these tools and really the most direct. Similar fingering system and brilliant coloristic data bass clarinet encourage saxophonists from time to time seek the services of a "big brother".
The bass clarinet sounds an octave below the main clarinet in B. the Range of the instrument is approximately four octaves. Lower the sound of the Es (e-flat) great octave French and English instruments, D (re) great octave – German instruments.
The lower sounds of the bass clarinet is so rich in odd harmonics that, when an instrument plays a solo, often heard the resulting major third.
Among the exotic instruments that could be confused with the sound of a bass clarinet, let's call in the first place:
The contrabass clarinet is still too rare to consider it as a serious resource of symphonic and chamber music. The tool, by design, close to the clarinet, the Contrabassoon, and the saxophone, often made of metal and consists of several tribes. It is distinguished by the richness of sound and an impressive range – from Kontraktova re to re of the first octave.
Basset-horn. (it. Bassethorn "bass horn") with the lower sound F (f) great octave and span more than three octaves. The barrel of the tool is narrower than the bass clarinet, and this gives his sound a special character. Basset horn – an instrument of German origin (invented about 1765 Bavarian master Mayrhofer). The most often cited example in the sound in operas by Mozart ("the abduction from the Seraglio", "the Magic flute"). The instrument dimensions vary. The picture instance has a length of about 90 cm.